T.M. Bhagalpur University was formally known as Bhagalpur University established under Bihar State Universities act, 1960 and came into existence from the 12th July, 1960. Later on, it was renamed as Tilkamanjhi Bhagalpur University. It is a teaching-cum-affiliating University and has its headquarter at Bhagalpur. It has juridiction over the four districts of Bhagalpur Division. At present there are 32 affiliated colleges under Bhagalpur University out of which 10 are in Bhagalpur district. Previously the colleges of the division were affiliated to Bihar University with headquarters at Patna.

The Governor of Bihar is the ex-officio chancellor of the universiy. The university has a vice-chancellor who is helped by a Pro. V.C., Examination Controller, Registrar, Finance Officer, CCDC, Proctor, Inspector of College and other officers and staff in a spacious large building.

There are thirty six Post-graduate Departments of the University in Science, Arts, Commerce Streams including M.C.A., M.B.A., M. Sc. Biotech, M. Sc. Bioinformatics etc.

The University campus is situated around historical Tilha Kothi and between the railway track of Eastern Central Railway and Holy Ganga, at a distance of about 3 kms from Bhagalpur Junction Railway Station.